Postdoctoral training increasingly is necessary for students who want to pursue careers in biomedical research. The college offers individualized programs for such advanced graduate study in most of its units. Postdoctoral training is normally obtained with a faculty member who is established and productive in a particular area of research. Application, acceptance, and program are arranged by the student and the faculty member with the concurrence of the unit chairperson. Students who hold either the Ph.D or the D.O. degree are encouraged to consider further training in research, which may provide an alternative to a second doctoral degree as preparation for a career as a medical educator and scientist. Substantive financial aid is available competitively through fellowships and traineeships awarded to the student directly and associateships provided by the faculty member from a grant or contract. Usually, postdoctoral research training requires two years or more, and accomplishment is evidenced in the publication of articles in refereed scientific journals.